Is it possible to build intelligent machines? Is the brain a machine? These two questions have been the obsession of great thinkers for centuries. Currently, we still know little about the brain; however, we are following a path that may consider it a computational system.
Colloquially, the term artificial intelligence is applied when a machine imitates the cognitive functions that humans associate with human mind, for example: “learn” and “solve problems”.
Nils John Nilsson, (one of the founders of this discipline), said that the AI rests on four basic pillars:
- Search for a state in a set of them, produced by possible actions.
- Genetic algorithms (analogous to the process of evolution of DNA chains).
- Artificial neural networks (analogous to the physical functioning of the brain of animals and humans).
- Reasoning through a formal logic analogous to human abstract thinking.
There are also different types of perceptions and actions, which can be obtained and produced, respectively, by physical sensors and mechanical sensors.
Heuristic searches, knowledge representation, languages and software tools, systems that think like humans (eg artificial neural networks), or those that act as humans (eg robotics), or systems that think logically (eg expert systems), are some of the world’s terms of artificial intelligence.
Many of the researchers on AI maintain that “intelligence is a program capable of being executed independently of the machine that executes it, computer or brain”.
Since the end of the 1980s, in which object-oriented languages have appeared, advances in the field of AI have been mainly produced by improvements in the software’s process capabilities (that is, hardware size and price has been drastically reduced). This has undoubtedly helped that its use begins to be carried out in a massive commercial manner (*), which augurs an exciting future.
(*) Some areas of application are Data Mining, Management and control, Manufacturing, Education, Engineering, Equipment, Cartography, Finance, Politics, Oil prospections, Chemical plants, Transportation Systems, Medicine, Automotive, Videogames, Marketing, …
Sources: : https://www.catarata.org/libro/inteligencia-artificial_52336/ , https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inteligencia_artificial)